Some “brain enhancement,” “memory,” or “mental clarity” supplements may contain unapproved drugs.

In a recent study, researchers analyzed 10 supplements whose labels listed omberacetam (Noopept), aniracetam, oxiracetam, or phenylpiracetam. All are unapproved drugs, and are similar to piracetam, which is prescribed for dementia or memory loss in some countries but is not approved for use in the United States.

The supplements contained just two of the four drugs, in one case at four times a typical dose. And more than half of the doses listed on the labels didn’t match what was in the pills.

What to do

Watch out. Many supplements make claims without good evidence, and some may contain unapproved drugs, sometimes at doses that could be risky.