In a 2020 study, researchers randomly assigned 147 people aged 18 to 50 who had had type 2 diabetes for no more than three years to either a control group or an intervention group. All had overweight or obesity. Every day for 12 weeks, the intervention group consumed only about 800 calories’ worth of meal replacement foods (like shakes, soups, and bars), plus raw vegetables and two quarts of water.