"Ten years ago, everyone was getting radical treatment for prostate cancer,” says Laurence Klotz, chairman of the World Urological Oncology Federation. “Everybody. Even low-risk patients. Then the world changed.” Now researchers know far more about who to treat and who to keep under “active surveillance.” And now urologists can use new techniques—from MRI scans to tests for genetic aberrations—to help men decide what to do. “It’s a new era,” says Klotz. “This whole area is changing rapidly.”