In the late 1980s, prostate cancer rates shot up after experts urged most men aged 50 or older to get PSA tests. Yet for every 80 men treated with surgery or radiation, 50 end up with erectile dysfunction and 15 have urinary incontinence. And many of them had a cancer that would have caused no harm. Researchers now know more about who needs treatment...and who can be monitored with “active surveillance.”

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