Part of the excitement of the holidays are the traditional foods of the season.
However, some of these foods can pose hazards that can ruin more than just a holiday meal --
they can cause serious illness and even death. Here are some tips on how to enjoy these foods
Treat your turkey with respect. Preparing a turkey takes a little planning, especially during the
hectic holiday season. Before buying your turkey, make room in your refrigerator and find a plate
or platter big enough to put the uncooked turkey on so any leaking juices won't contaminate other
foods in the refrigerator. At the store, buy the turkey last, put it in a separate plastic bag to avoid
contaminating other foods, and refrigerate it immediately when you get home. If you are
combining food shopping with other holiday shopping, make the grocery store the last stop so
food will not be left in the car while you are searching for the perfect gifts.
Warm up to your turkey gradually. If buying a frozen turkey, the safest way to defrost it is in
the refrigerator, but keep in mind you need to allow 24 hours of defrosting for every 5 pounds of
turkey. For Thanksgiving, that means a 20 pound frozen turkey needs to start defrosting on
Sunday. Don't defrost the turkey on the counter. A microwave is too small for most turkeys, but
if using one, cook the turkey as soon as it is defrosted. Turkeys wrapped in leak-proof plastic can
be defrosted in cold water, but the water should be changed every 30 minutes and allow 30
minutes of defrosting per pound of turkey. Buy your fresh turkey only one to two days before
you plan to cook it.
Clear the decks. Before preparing the turkey, clear and thoroughly clean the counter, as well as
the cooking equipment which you may not have used since preparing last year's turkey. Clean
immediately with hot soapy water anything, including sponges and hands, that touches the raw
turkey or juice. Sanitize sponges by running them through your dishwasher.
Just cook it. When cooking a turkey, use a meat thermometer. Even if you use a "pop-up"
thermometer, it's a good idea to check the temperature with a conventional meat thermometer. If
you don't have one, pick one up at the grocery store as you're searching for the holiday items. Set
the oven no lower than 325 F and cook the turkey to 165 F in the inner thigh. The juices should
run clear. Here are approximate cooking times for turkey, but use a meat thermometer to verify
| Weight (pounds) || Unstuffed Cooking Time
(hours) || Stuffed Cooking Time (hours) |
8 to 12
| 2 3/4 to 3 || 3 to 3 1/2 |
12 to 14
| 3 to 3 3/4 || 3 1/2 to 4 |
14 to 18
| 3 3/4 to 4 1/4 || 4 to 4 1/4|
18 to 20
| 4 1/4 to 4 1/2 || 4 1/4 to 4 3/4|
20 to 24
| 4 1/2 to 5 || 4 3/4 to 5 1/4 |
Turkeys on the run. More and more busy Americans are opting to buy hot pre-cooked turkeys
for their holiday meal. If you choose this option, be sure to keep the turkey at 140 F or above if
you will be eating it within two hours of picking it up. If you will be eating the turkey more than
two hours later or if you buy a cold pre-cooked turkey, you should dismantle your feast and
refrigerate it. Remove the stuffing from the bird and cut the turkey off the bone. Wings and legs
can be left whole. Refrigerate all the food, including any side dishes, in separate shallow
containers. Reheat food to 165 F and boil gravy.
The grand finale. Your efforts have paid off. The turkey is beautiful and your guests are duly
impressed. To keep the food safe while it being served, leave it out for no longer than two hours.
If you're having a buffet, don't serve all the food at once. Keep the second and third servings
either hot at or above 140 F in the oven or cold in the refrigerator. To prevent contamination, put
additional food out on clean platters instead of adding it to the platters already on the table.
To stuff or not to stuff. For many people stuffing is the best part of the turkey, but it must be
carefully prepared because it is warm and moist -- a perfect environment for bacteria to grow in.
Stuffing can be contaminated by bacteria from eggs and shellfish in the stuffing or the turkey
itself. The safest way to cook stuffing is on the stove or in the oven, but separate from the turkey.
If cooking the stuffing inside the bird, loosely stuff the turkey just before you stick it in the oven
with cup stuffing per pound of turkey. Use a meat thermometer to make sure the center of the
stuffing reaches 165 F. A "pop-up" thermometer that comes with a turkey won't tell you the
temperature of the stuffing. Avoid pre-stuffed fresh turkeys.
Serve it mulled. Unpasteurized apple cider is another holiday food that may contain harmful
bacteria. If serving cider to elderly or young family members and friends or those with weakened
immune systems, buy pasteurized apple cider. If you want to buy unpasteurized cider or are
unsure if the cider is pasteurized, mull the cider by heating it to 160 F or boiling it if you don't
have a thermometer. Serve it warm or cold.
Pasteurize or die. (Just kidding, we hope.) If homemade, this creamy treat could be
contaminated with bacteria sometimes found in raw eggs. To be sure the eggnog is safe, use
pasteurized egg products or buy ready-made eggnog, which is pasteurized. If you want to make
eggnog with whole eggs safely, gradually heat the egg-milk mixture to 160 F or until it coats a
Need some dough? Though it's almost too tempting for children and many adults, homemade
cookie dough can no longer be sampled safely. Just like in eggnog, raw whole eggs in cookie
dough may contain harmful bacteria. If you just can't make cookies without sneaking some
dough, used pasteurized egg products in place of whole eggs.
The aftermath. Holiday meals usually mean lots of leftovers. Although you may not feel like
doing much after a big meal, be sure to refrigerate or freeze leftovers within two hours of cooking
the food. Separate leftovers into shallow containers. Turkey should be removed from the bone
and stored separately from the stuffing and gravy. Use leftovers within 4 days, except stuffing
and gravy which should be used within 2 days. If that seems like an impossible feat, freeze the
Revisiting the holidays. To serve the feast again, reheat leftovers to 165 F and boil soups,
sauces, and gravies.