References, CSPI Letter to FDA on Caffeine Labeling

1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration, Caffeine and Pregnancy (FDA) 81-1081.

2. Wilcox, A., Weinberg, C.R., Baird, D. Caffeinated beverages and decreased fertility. (Letter). Lancet 1988;2:1453-5.

3. Grodstein, R., Goldman, M.B., Ryan, L., Cramer, D. W., Relation of female infertility to consumption of caffeinated beverages. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1993;137:1353-1360.

4. Stanton, C.K., and Gray, R.H., Effects of caffeine consumption on delayed conception. American Journal of Epidemiology 1995;142:1322-1329.

5. Williams, M.A., Monson, R.R., Goldman, M.B., Mittendorf, R., Ryan, K.J., Coffee and delayed conception. Lancet 1990;335:1603.

6. Bolumar, F., Olsen, J., Rebagliato, M., Bisanti, L., and the European Study Group on infertility and Subfecundity, Caffeine intake and delayed conception: a European Multicenter study on infertility and subfecundity. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997;145:324-334.

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9. Furuhashl, N, Sato, S., Suzuki, M., Hiruta, M., Tanaka, M., Takahashi, T., Effects of caffeine ingestion during pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 985;19:187-91.

10. Fenster, L., Eskenazi, B., Windham, G.C., Swan, S.H., Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and fetal growth. American Journal of Public Health 1991; 81:45 8-46 1.

11. Fortier, I., Marcoux, S., Beaulac-Baillargeon, L., Relation of caffeine intake during pregnancy to intrauterine growth retardation and preterm birth. American Journal of Epidemiology 1003;1 3 7:931-40.

12. Cook, D.G., Peacock, J.L., Feyerabend, C., Carey, I.M., Jarvis, M.J., Anderson, H.R., Bland, J.M., Relation of caffeine intake and blood caffeine concentrations during pregnancy to fetal growth: prospective population based study. British Medical Journal 1996;313:1358-1362.

13. Vlajinac, H., Petrovic, R.R., Marinkovic, J.M., Sipetic, S.B., Adanja, B.J., Effect of caffeine intake during pregnancy on birth weight. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997; 145:335-338.

14. Srisuphan, W., Bracken, M.B., Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and association with late spontaneous abortion. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1986; 1 54:14-20.

15. Armstrong, B.G., McDonald, A.D., Sloan, M., Cigarette, alcohol, and coffee consumption and spontaneous abortion. American Journal of Public Health 1992;82:85-87.

16. Infante-Rivard, C., Fernandez, A., Gauthier, R., David, M., Rivard, G-E., Fetal loss associated with caffeine intake before and during pregnancy. JAAM 1993;270:2940-2943.

17. Massey, L.K., Wise, K.J., The effect of dietary caffeine on urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in healthy young females. Nutrition Research 1984;4:43-50.

18. Faine, M.P., Dietary factors related to preservation of oral and skeletal bone mass in women. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 1995;73:65-72.

19. Kiel, D.P., Felson, D.T., Hannan, M.T., Anderson, J.J., Wilson, P.W., Caffeine and the risk of hip fracture: the Framingham Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1990; 132:675-684.

20. Hemandez-Avila, M., Colditz, G.,A., Stampfer, M.J., Rosner, B., Speizer, F.E., Willett, W.C., Caffeine, moderate alcohol intake, and risk of fractures of the hip and forearm in middle-aged women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991;54:157-163.

21. Barrett-Connor, E., Chang, J.C., Edelstein, S.L., Coffee-associated osteoporosis offset by daily milk consumption. The Rancho Bernardo Study. Journal ofthe American Medical Association 1994;271:280-283.

22. Hughes, J.R., Higgins, S.T., Bickel, W.K., Hunt, W.K., Fenwick, J.W., Gulliver, S.B., Mireault, G.C. Caffeine self-administration, withdrawal, and adverse effects among coffee drinkers. Archives of General Psychiatry 199 1;48:611-617.

23. Silverman, K., Evans, S.M., Strain, E.C., Griffiths, R.R., Withdrawal syndrome after the double-blind cessation of caffeine consumption. New England Journal ofmedicine 1992;327:1109-1114.

24. van Dusseldorp, M., Katan, M.B., Headache caused by caffeine withdrawal among moderate coffee drinkers switched from ordinary to decaffeinated coffee: a 12 week double blind trial. British Medical Journal 1990;300:1558-1559.

25. Griffiths, R.R., Evans, S.M., Heishman, S.J., et al., Low-dose caffeine physical dependence in humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1990;255:1123-1132.

26. Bernstein, G.A., Caffoll, M.E., Crosby, R.D., Perwien, A.R., Go, F.S., Benowitz, N.L., Caffeine effects on learning, performance, and anxiety in normal school-age children. Journal ofthe American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1994;33:407-415.

27. Bernstein, G.A., Walters, N., Crosby, R., Perwien, A., Carroll, M., Benowitz, N., Caffeine withdrawal and the effect in normal children, in: Scientific Proceedings 43rd Annual meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Philadelphia, PA 1997.

28. Hale, K.L, Hughes, J.R., Oliveto, A.H., Higgins, S.T., Caffeine self-administration and subjective effects in adolescents. Experimental Clinical Psychopharmacology 1995;3: 364-370.

29. United States Department of Agriculture. Food and nutrient intakes by individuals in the United States, 1 Day, 1994. Agricultural Research Service. NFS Report No. 94-2.

30. United States Department of Agriculture. "What we eat in America--First year results from ongoing survey." Food & Nutrition Research Briefs, January 1996.

31. Guenther, P.M., Beverages in the diets of American teenagers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1986;86:493-499.